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an AS 1580 is an automatic winder. The mainspring in an automatic winder is not hooked up to the barrel but has a stiff, short length of spring fastened to the outer end of the mainspring to act as a slipping clutch. Once the mainspring is wound, the stiffer spring slips around the inside wall of the barrel. This arangement prevents damage when the spring is fully wound and the automatic winding mechanism continues to wind the spring.
So, yes, you can keep on winding and it will not get to the point where it stops winding even when fully wound.
The fact that the balance does not start can be the spring, the train or the escapement… Did you clean and oil the movement?