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There are a few different ways to attack this.
1) Often, you can find a replacement jewelon the Internet by doing a reverse look up with the serial number to find a parts list, then try to find the correct replacement jewel by contacting a supplier to see if they have some new/old stock. Alternately, you can look for old movements or partial movements with that particular jewel intact and purchase that. Then you can push out the that jewel and press it back into the watch that you’re working on. Check the end shake to ensure that you have the jewel depth correct.
2) If you have a lathe, you can take a piece a brass or steel rod that is somewhat bigger than the jewel hole, and turn it down slightly until you have a tight press fit into the hole. Then, use you calipers to determine the hole size. Add .001″ to the order jewel diameter. (Someone check me on this)
3) if you have a set of pin gauges you can find the one that just fit into the hole. There are plus/minus sets for a go-no go arrangement. There is an excellent thread on this where Bob and David explain this better than I can.
4) I fyou have a set of the tools used to open the holes around rubbed in jewels, you can place one of those into the hole (if its one of the bigger jewels) and open it until it is a tight fit, then use your calipers to determine the hole diamter. NOTE! Take care not to clamp down on the tools as it will affect the accuracy of the reading which in this case won’t be all that accurate.
5) If you have a staking set with reamers and a lathe, you can ream the hole out to a known larger size, order a jewel with the correct inside diameter, then use a peice of brass rod or steel to create a bushing. Start by reaming out a hole in the watch plate somewhat larger than the original hole being careful to keep the center. Next select a brass or steel rod a little larger than the newly reamed hole in the watch plate. Place the rod into your lathe, ream out the brass rod to a press fit to the O.D. of the jewel, then turn the rod down to fit have a tight fit for the OD of the jewel before parting off to the correct depth (a little smaller than the depth of the watch plate). Using your staking set, press the new jewel into the bushing. Finally, again using your staking set, push the new jewel with bushing into the newly reamed hole in the watch plate. [This is not possible if you want to keep the watch in its original state.] Of course you need the tools to do this one.
I’m sure there are other methods that folks here can provide.
I hope this helps,