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With dust in the atmosphere everywhere except under certain laboratory conditions you will not keep the dust out of anything. If you are talking about a watch movement then a well fitted case that is waterproof will do a very good job of keeping dust out as well as water, in fact the only way it can enter the mech is through the hand adjuster which to some degree (the setting lever has to pass through a small rubber “o”ring when it is pulled out and pushed in),will allow dead skin cells in to the movement each time you have to adjust the hands. If you are talking about the movement of a clock then each time the clock is wound, new air with new dust particles will be admitted through the winding arbor holes when the clock is wound and also around the front glass bezel as most are not water tight when closed and through any doors to the case.
In both cases, the motion of the mechanism i.e metal against metal even with lubricant will create minute metal particles which help to contaminate the oil in any watch or clock. Blowing the movement with air as William has already stated will more than likely just move around any dust particles which are already there, there wouldn’t be much advantage in doing this, keeping the movement in some form of sealed container would be of more benefit.
Hope that helps?